3 Exercises to Help you Recover from COVID-19

If you’re diagnosed with COVID-19, it’s essential that you do all you can to ensure a speedy recovery. Along with the pharmacological treatment options, such as supplemental oxygen, there are some natural ways you can try to expedite your recovery. So, in this post, we will explore 3 types of COVID-19 recovery exercises that you can do daily to improve your breathing, mobility, and psychological state.

1. Breathing Exercises for Lung Recovery

The COVID-19 virus attacks the respiratory system primarily, including the lungs, and you can even develop pneumonia as it damages structures within the lungs. Thankfully, there are several deep breathing COVID-19 recovery exercises that you can do to improve your condition.

§ Deep breathing on your belly- while lying on your chest, seal your lips, then rest your tongue against the roof of your mouth. Take a deep breath in through your nose, then release it slowly through your nose. Do this exercise continuously for a minute.

§ Deep breathing while sitting- on the edge of a chair, sit upright and rest your hands on the sides of your abdomen. Seal your lips, then rest your tongue against the roof of your mouth. Take a deep breath in through your nose, then release it slowly through your nose, spread your fingers on each inspiration. Do this exercise continuously for a minute.

2. Mobility Exercises for Legs & Arms

Physical exercise is vital for recovery, especially for people who were admitted, particularly in the ICU ward. You will need to do physical activities to improve your muscle strength, fitness, and energy. Speak to your healthcare provider to find out which of the following exercises you are permitted to do based on your condition.

§ Warm-up exercises- shoulder shrugs, side bends, knee lifts, and ankle circles.

§ Fitness & strengthening exercises- the CDC recommends engaging in 20-30 minutes of COVID-19 recovery exercises 5 days each week. Here are a few you can do :

§ Marching on the spot

§ Step-ups

§ Walking

§ Jogging or cycling

§ Wall push-off

§ Arm raises to the side

3. Mental Health Strengthening Exercises

COVID-19 has no doubt had a significant impact on the mental health of everyone, especially if you were infected. It induces stress, anxiety, depression, and even loneliness. Mindful techniques, such as meditation and yoga daily for 10 to 15 minutes, make a massive difference. Smooth exercises and meditation relax the body and mind. The CDC also encourages us to stay socially connected, practice relaxing exercises, and indulge in hobbies.

COVID-19 and its variants can do great damage the longer it lingers within your body. So, we urge you to seriously consider adopting these supplemental COVID-19 recovery exercises to help boost your respiratory, musculoskeletal, and mental health recovery.

In mental health, the importance of socializing, having good friends and family, where you can receive unconditional love, has been studied. Love and friendship are therapies for physical recovery from many diseases, including cancer.

Being part of communities like churches, or clubs, makes a big difference in lengthening people's lives, under any circumstance.

Having faith and prayerful support are other aids that have also been investigated, and it has been shown that a person who possesses these elements brings greater happiness and greater strength in the midst of difficulties.


‌Coronavirus Recovery: Breathing Exercises. (2021). https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/coronavirus-recovery-breathing-exercises

Support for Rehabilitation Self-Management after COVID-19- Related Illness. (n.d.). Retrieved August 30, 2021, from https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/ageing/support-for-rehabilitation-self-management-after-covid-19-related-illness-engf5cec00b-350b-4eb0-bc24-0704df509ae1.pdf?sfvrsn=203566f0_1&download=true



All About Centrifuges

Centrifuges are becoming more necessary due to the pandemic. Many healthcare facilities, including labs, are looking to purchase their first or their next centrifuge to offset some of the testing burdens. Whatever the case, we want to help you get a better understanding of centrifuges. So in this post, we will look at what a centrifuge is, how it works, and the types. Let’s jump in!


What is a Centrifuge?

A centrifuge is a laboratory device that is typically used within medical practice and scientific settings to separate particles from a solution using a rotor. It is used to separate fluids, gas, and liquid of organelles, cells, and large molecules during a centrifugation process.

How Does a Centrifuge Work?

Although gravity does a fine job separating elements, it takes a long time, and that’s why we need centrifuges, as it does the work in minutes rather than waiting up to a day or more for the natural gravitational force. Essentially, a centrifuge uses the sedimentation principle. The sedimentation principle involves particles with a higher density than that of the solvent sinking (sediments), while the lighter particles float to the top. The gravitational force causes this separation to occur according to substance density.


Each centrifuge has a rotator that spins and produces a centrifugal force. This force then gets applied to each particle in the sample. This causes the particle to sediment based on the centrifugal force applied. How quickly the sedimentation principle occurs is also dependent on the consistency of the solution and the particles’ physical properties. Additionally, the particles move faster when there is a significant density difference, and when there is none or very little difference in density, the particles remain still within the sample.


In the end, the denser particles typically sink to the bottom, and the lighter ones remain on top, just as in the case of making juice with the fruit pulp. The pulp is heavier, so it sinks while the liquid stays on top. Also, in a blood sample with red blood cells and plasma combines, the centrifugation process will leave the red blood cells at the bottom and the plasma on top.


Types of Centrifuges


We’re looking at centrifuge types based on the number of samples (tubes) they can hold. Some centrifuges are designed for either 6, 12, or 24 tubes. The amount of tubes you need is dependent on the size of your facility and the number of samples processed daily. Small laboratory settings or medical facilities tend to opt for a 6 -tube centrifuge.


Stick around; in our next post, we’ll take a more in-depth look at these three centrifuges, their differences, and their special uses.




How a Centrifuge Works - Drucker Diagnostics. (2020, February 13). Drucker Diagnostics. https://druckerdiagnostics.com/knowledge/how-a-centrifuge-works/


‌Centrifugation Theory. (2021). Fishersci.se. https://www.fishersci.se/se/en/scientific-products/centrifuge-guide/centrifugation-theory.html


‌Laboratory Centrifuges | Biocompare. (2017). Biocompare.com. https://www.biocompare.com/Lab-Equipment/Laboratory-Centrifuges/



Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP)


Maybe you’ve heard of platelet-rich plasma (PRP); if not, we guarantee that you will hear of it soon enough, as its popularity within the medical industry is increasing rapidly. It has even taken over on social media. However, as with all novel ideas, there is a lot of hype and questions surrounding this new treatment modality, and we want to provide you with facts to answer some of those questions.


In this post, we will look at what PRP therapy is and how it is made. Then we will do a follow-up post describing the use of PRP treatment in dermatology.


What is Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy?

Platelets (thrombocytes) are a type of blood cell whose primary function is to aid with clotting. But they are also quite instrumental in the healing process. At an injury or treatment site, platelets will produce compounds known as growth factors, which aid cell repair and regeneration, an integral and initial part of the healing process.


Plasma is the liquid part of your blood made mostly of water and protein. It is also the largest part of the blood (55%), and when separated from the rest of the blood, as in the case of PRP therapy, plasma has a light yellow color. Plasma’s primary role is to transport proteins, hormones, and nutrients throughout the body.


In platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy, the specialist injects a concentration of your platelets at your site of injury or treatment. The aim is to speed up the healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, joints, and tissues by inducing the growth of new tissues and cells. The plasma is used to transport the platelets into the required areas, where they aid in the healing process.


How is Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) Made?


To start the process, the specialist will use a butterfly needle to withdraw blood from your arm. The needle has butterfly-shaped wings and is used to access a vein for drawing blood or administering medication. After withdrawal, the blood gets transferred into a blue-top tube with a rubber stopper. This is a specialized tube for platelet-rich plasma blood collection, as it contains 3.8% sodium citrate and GEL. Several studies show that sodium citrate is one of the most suitable anticoagulants as it ensures optimal platelet viability is maintained at a high level. 


It is then placed in a machine called a centrifuge. The Centrifuge 614B model that holds up to 6 tubes is used to prepare the PRP through a process known as differential centrifugation. During differential centrifugation, the centrifuge is adjusted in speed to separate the different parts of the blood. The blood comes out separated then the platelet-poor plasma is suspended into the plasma by gently shaking the tube. Lastly, the affected area is numbed and the PRP mixture is injected.


We hope you’ve learned a bunch about PRP treatment from this post and are looking forward to our next post, where we will tell you how platelet-rich plasma therapy can benefit you.




Dhurat, R., & Sukesh, M. (2014). Principles and methods of preparation of platelet-rich plasma: A review and author′s perspective. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery, 7(4), 189. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2077.150734


Platelet Rich Plasma PRP tube 8ml High concentration. (2018). Henso Medical. https://www.hensomed.com/products/platelet-rich-plasma-prp-tube-8ml-high-concentration/


‌Camille Noe Pagán. (2019, August 19). Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections: What to Know. WebMD; WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/platelet-rich-plasma-injections#1


‌What Is Plasma? - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center. (2021). Rochester.edu. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=160&ContentID=37

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What is PCR?

All of us have heard the term PCR being used in some way or another. But many persons do not understand or know what PCR means? So in today’s post, we will break PCR down into simpler terms for you.


What is PCR?

PCR, which is short for Polymerase Chain Reaction, is a method used by scientists to create numerous copies of a particular section of DNA. The process is fast and typically delivers accurate results. The polymerase chain reaction is used in research to make a massive batch of DNA samples that researchers can use for several experiments and investigations. Usually, they utilize it for studies of forensic analysis, medical diagnosis, molecular biology, and evolutionary biology.


Before the PCR method was invented, scientists would use a very tedious process to copy DNA. However, In 1983, an American biochemist named Kary B. Mullis developed the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, which now generates DNA copies in just a couple of hours. Now, the PCR test is used as a common tool to identify the presence or absence of a gene. This helps identify pathogens (disease-causing organisms) during an infection.


In essence, the PCR test is used primarily for persons being tested for COVID-19. This virus has ravaged the world in multiple forms, creating needs in many countries, one of which is PCR testing. In fact, on May 20, 2021, UNICEF made a desperate plea for assistance for Southern Asia, where they needed US$40 million for medical and diagnostic equipment, including those for PCR testing. Further, in an article published by the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, it was reported that the UK and USA have opened drive-through testing centers for PCR testing. Additionally, as of March 7, 2021, 363,825,123 have been PCR tested in the United States.



How is a PCR Done?

Using the PCR method involves inserting a swab into the nostril, and while it may prove uncomfortable, it should be painless. In the UK, self-testing is allowed. As such, the NHS provides a detailed description of the PCR testing process on its website. It involves:

       Cleaning your hands

       Place items from the test kit onto a clean surface

       Blow your nose and wash your hands again

       Open your mouth wide and rub the swab over your tonsils

       Put the same swab inside your nose

       Put the swab facing down into the tube and screw the lid tight

       Put the tube in the bag provided


If you get this test done by a professional, they would use the same or pretty similar steps. After sample collection is the extraction phase. At this point, the sample arrives at the lab, and the technician will proceed to isolate DNA material from the sample. They will then use chemical compounds and a thermal cycler (PCR machine) to generate a reaction and make millions of copies of a small section of the coronavirus’s DNA for further testing. If the virus is present, one of the chemicals shows a fluorescent light.


We hope you now have a clearer understanding of what a PCR test is, and we look forward to having you read our next post. Till then, keep safe.


PCR Test for COVID-19: What it Is, How its Done, What the Results Mean. (2020). Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diagnostics/21462-covid-19-and-pcr-testing

 ‌NHS Choices. (2021). How to do a PCR test. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/testing/how-to-do-a-test-at-home-or-at-a-test-site/how-to-do-a-pcr-test/

 ‌polymerase chain reaction | Definition & Steps | Britannica. (2021). In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/polymerase-chain-reaction

 ‌Burki, T. K. (2020). Testing for COVID-19. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(7), e63–e64. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30247-2

 The COVID Tracking Project‌. (2021).Totals for the US. https://covidtracking.com/data/national

 ‌As deadly surge of COVID-19 sweeps across South Asia, UNICEF calls for US$164 million to help save lives. (2021). Unicef.org. https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/deadly-surge-covid-19-sweeps-across-south-asia-unicef-calls-us164-million-help-save

What is PCR (polymerase chain reaction)? (2015, September 11). @Yourgenome. https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-pcr-polymerase-chain-reaction

The Aftereffect of COVID-19 on its Survivors

Surviving the dreaded COVID-19 virus is probably the one and only wish anyone who gets infected has, and it would be the same sentiment toward their loved ones. While it is an absolute joy to recover, as with any other illness, COVID-19 leaves its mark on those who have faced it and survived. While some may get over this illness in a short period, others battle with it for months. However, whether the duration of infection was long or short, the coronavirus causes long-term damage. So in this post, we will explore the reported long-term aftereffects of COVID-19.



Respiratory Effects

Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, it is only natural that it worsens or induces other conditions that affect the respiratory tract. According to the CDC, severe lung-related diseases, such as COVID-19, can cause health effects, including weakness and exhaustion. Further, one specific COVID-19 health effect is pneumonia. Although it develops while you are infected with the virus, in some cases, it persists after a negative COVID test result. This pneumonia damages certain structures within the lungs resulting in long-term breathing problems.


Weakness & Fatigue

Weakness and fatigue are two of the more common aftereffects of COVID-19. In fact, they are typically associated with recovery from viral infections. Several reasons can account for why you feel weak or fatigued even though you have received a negative COVID-19 test result, such as the pneumonia associated with the condition and the fact that your body is in “repair mode.” Also, persons who had severe COVID-19 and required management with ventilators, and treatment in an intensive care unit, usually experience post-recovery long-term fatigue.


Hair Loss

Scores of people have reported hair loss as an aftereffect of COVID-19, and clinicians believe this to be related to physical and emotional stress induced by knowing you are infected with COVID-19. They assert that this particular hair loss is reversible with efficient and consistent treatment. In an online survey, over 500 persons from a total of 1700 respondents say they’ve experienced hair loss after recovering from COVID-19.



Heart Problems

Recently, patients who had even a mild form of COVID-19 are showing evidence of long-lasting COVID-19 health effects on the heart muscle after recovery. Clinicians believe that this development can eventually lead to heart failure or other conditions.


Other Health Effects of COVID-19

COVID-19 essentially affects the entire body. As such, it is even seen to cause and worsen brain-related issues such as strokes, seizures, and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, some persons may experience inflammation in different areas of their body and even develop blood clots.


So much is still unknown about the long-term aftereffects of COVID-19; however, much research is underway. Consequently, we urge you and your loved ones to get a physical examination done after your COID-19 recovery. Doing so will help to identify and treat any effects early. We will continue to keep you up-to-date with credible information to ensure your safety and improved health. See you next time!



Your COVID Recovery. (2021). Yourcovidrecovery.nhs.uk. https://www.yourcovidrecovery.nhs.uk/managing-the-effects/effects-on-your-body/fatigue/


‌CDC. (2020, February 11). Post-COVID Conditions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects.html


‌COVID-19 (coronavirus): Long-term effects. (2021). Mayo Clinic; https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-long-term-effects/art-20490351


‌Sweet, J. (2020, August 22). COVID-19 Survivors Are Losing Their Hair — Here’s Why. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/covid-19-survivors-are-losing-their-hair-heres-why#Hair-loss-among-long-haulers 

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What Medications & Treatments are Used to Treat COVID-19?

Since the discovery of this novel coronavirus in December 2019, there has been much speculation and suggestions as to which COVID-19 treatment modalities would be ideal. Some of these options would target the signs and symptoms patients experience, while others would seek to rid the body of the virus itself.


The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that as of July 14, 2021, there have been 187,296,646 confirmed cases of COVID-19. Many of these persons have needed to seek COVID-19 treatment, and some have even been hospitalized. Consequently, healthcare providers have used several COVID-19 medications and treatments. So in this post, we will look at some of those management options and explore why some were efficient when others weren't.


Which COVID-19 Treatments Have Worked?

COVID-19 is currently being treated with both FDA-approved drugs and those used under an Emergency Use Authorization. According to the CDC, here are some of the recommended COVID-19 treatment options that have worked.

      Infection prevention and control measures

      Supplemental oxygen- is prescribed for patients to improve the level of oxygen in the blood and help mitigate shortness of breath while reducing the workload of the heart and lungs.

      Nebulized Steroids (Budesonide) - according to Dr. Richard Bartlett, a 28-year medical veteran, Budesonide used as an inhaled steroid has given him a 100% recovery rate for his patients. It is believed that Budesonide is efficient because the morbidity from COVID-19 occurs due to the shattering inflammatory effects of the virus that starts roughly a week after becoming ill. So when Budesonide is administered before or during the early stage of this inflammation, it could hinder worsening of COVID-19.

      Mechanical ventilatory support- this machine assists COVID-19 patients to breathe, especially when they are critically ill. 

      Remdesivir (Veklury) - approved by the FDA for treating COVID-19 in select hospitalized patients.

      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has also created a list endorsing those and other options, including Dexamethasone. Dexamethasone is a drug typically used in relieving inflammation. This steroid may decrease the risk of death in severely ill COVID-19 patients.

      Favipiravir- used to treat the influenza viruses was approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in China in March 2020.

      Vaccines- that are made specifically for treating COVID-19 are the only comprehensive and defensive treatment option.


Which COVID-19 Treatments have not Worked?

Several potential COVID-19 medications have surfaced, such as the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine; there is also lopinavir/ritonavir, an antiviral drug. These are some of the most talked-about medications recommended for treating COIVD-19; however, they have proved inefficient. Other treatment suggestions that have since been deemed inefficacious include but are not limited to,

      Interferon-beta- a large trial of this method revealed that injected interferon-beta into hospitalized COVID-19 patients did not improve their condition.

      Convalescent plasma- has been authorized for emergency treatment of COVID-19 in the US, although studies show very little to no benefit from this therapy.



Why do Some COVID-19 Treatments Work & Some Don't?

As with other conditions, some therapies will work, and some won't. This phenomenon does not mean that the management option itself is inefficient in totality. We must understand that several variables contribute to whether or not the same treatment that helps you get better will help me, as well. While some COVID-19 treatments are just plain ineffective because of the nature of the virus, here are a few reasons why some work and others don't:

      Your age can determine how your body breaks down, absorbs, and uses different drugs.

      Interference from other medications is affecting the way COVID-19 medications work.

      If you have been receiving any of the now recommended COVID-19 drugs, their long-term use can result in medication tolerance development.

      Early diagnosis helps catch the virus in its earlier stages, where it is much more receptive to treatment.


There are literally hundreds of COVID-19 treatment methods currently being explored to help remedy this deadly virus. As we continue to seek out and share knowledge concerning this novel coronavirus, we encourage you to practice preventative measures, as they are the best form of management.




‌Ali, M. J., Hanif, M., Haider, M. A., Ahmed, M. U., Sundas, F., Hirani, A., Khan, I. A., Anis, K., & Karim, A. H. (2020). Treatment Options for COVID-19: A Review. Frontiers in Medicine, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00480

CDC. (2020, February 11). Therapeutic Options for COVID-19 Patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/therapeutic-options.html

Dent, G. (2020, October 22). Coronavirus: which treatments work and which don’t? The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-which-treatments-work-and-which-dont-147594

‌Drbeen Medical Lectures. (2020). Nebulized Steroids (Budesonide) Talk with Dr. Richard Bartlette [YouTube Video]. In YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=205Unk4TQXI&t=19s

‌Hospitalized Adults: Therapeutic Management | COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. (2021). COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines; COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/management/clinical-management/hospitalized-adults--therapeutic-management/

Jean, S.-S., Lee, P.-I., & Hsueh, P.-R. (2020). Treatment options for COVID-19: The reality and challenges. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 53(3), 436–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.034 

The COVID-19 Variants: What you need to know


Virus mutation is a common occurrence. In fact, it is expected to happen. As such, we have seen the identification of several COVID-19 variants. Sometimes new strains will resolve on their own, and at times, they persist and are more severe than the original virus. These mutations occur due to a change in the virus’s genes.


What are the COVID-19 Variants?

The currently identified COVID-19 strains are B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.617.2 (Delta). These variants were found in the United States and other countries. In this post, we will explore the four new strains of the COVID-19 virus.


The variant, COVID-19B.1.351 (Beta), is rather prevalent in the United States and Brazil. It was first noticed in South Africa in December 2020 and identified in the United States a few weeks later. January 2021 led to the discovery of the COVID-19 P.1 (Gamma) strain. According to the CDC, P.1. was identified in travelers at a Japanese airport who traveled from Brazil. A few isolated cases have been reported in the United States and Brazil.


The COVID-19 strain B.1.7 (Delta) is relatively uncommon. The first cases of this variant were found in India around December 2020. Then in January 2021, COVID-19 Delta got identified in the United States. The final strain is B.1.1.7 (Alpha), which was discovered in the United States in December 2020; however, it originated from the United Kingdom. So far, it is the most common strain.


How can I Identify a COVID-19 Variant?

Infection with the COVID-19 mutations gets diagnosed through blood tests, but most will not detect these four strains. However, The New York Times reported that "scientists have agreed, there is no evidence that the known variants of concern are causing tests to fail completely." The symptoms of the COVID-19 variants are similar to those experienced by people infected by the regular SARS-CoV-2, such as fever, headache, cough, sore throat/sore muscles (myalgia), fatigue, or malaise.


How  are the COVID-19 Variants Treated?

As we know, there is no specific treatment against COVID-19. So the world has been depending on vaccines to provide immunity and virus control. However, Hopkins Medicine asserts that, "researchers have found that the COVID-19 vaccine from Oxford-AstraZeneca provides "minimal" protection from the B.1.351 version of the coronavirus." The other vaccines offer less efficacy against the variants, as well. The CDC advises that we continue to practice coronavirus safety measures, like wearing a mask, physical distancing, and hand washing or sanitizing to decrease the risk of infection.


Each day we learn more about these strains and scientists are working tirelessly to understand more about them. So far, we know that these variants spread more easily than the original form of the virus and the vaccines offer lower protection, which companies are working to remedy. So we must exercise caution. We are all in this fight together; let's help protect ourselves and others by practicing the COVID-19 safety measures and sharing credible information.



CDC. (2020, February 11). About Variants of the Virus that Causes COVID-19​​. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/variant.html


‌New Variants of Coronavirus: What You Should Know. (2020). https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/a-new-strain-of-coronavirus-what-you-should-know


‌What the Coronavirus Variants Mean for Testing. (2021). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/14/health/coronavirus-testing-variants.html





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Current report on COVID Vaccination around the World

At the time of writing this blog post (June 23, 2021), Our World in Data reported that “22.2% of the world population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. 2.8 billion doses have been administered globally, and 40.5 million are now administered each day. Only 0.9% of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose.” 

COVID-19 swept the globe, leaving many countries clamoring to survive. We now look toward the vaccines for assistance in returning our lives to some level of normalcy. In this post, we will explore the issue of vaccination worldwide.


What Vaccines are Available?

To provide the world with immunity, several companies embarked on journeys to create a vaccine. Today, we now have a few COVID-19 vaccine options available. According to the CDC, the three authorized and recommended in the United States are Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen. There are other options, like the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine, which is used in many other countries.



As of 2018, the European population was reported as 746.4 million. To date, 464 million people within the European continent have received at least one dose of vaccination. Throughout the fifty-one (51) European countries, they have been using Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen, and the AstraZeneca vaccines to induce population immunity.


North America

The United States and Canada have vaccinated approximately 414 million residents, many of whom have received two doses. The US uses the three vaccines previously mentioned, while Canada uses all three and AstraZeneca. US President Joe Biden has a goal of having 70% of the US adult population at least partially vaccinated by July 4.



Our World in Data reports that, up to June 23, 2021, approximately 46 million people within the African continent received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Of note, the African population stands at 1.216 billion as of 2016. These numbers suggest that vaccination efforts in African countries are not progressing as rapidly as they should. South Africa is the most affected country on the continent; however, its vaccination rate is only 2.7 per 100.



Asia is the world’s largest continent, with a population of 4.561 billion. Currently, its vaccination rate stands at 1.65 billion. Again, these statistics reveal a rather slow progression in the vaccination rollout efforts. China has been making strides in vaccinating its population and donating vaccines to other Asian countries. Asia also uses a variety of available vaccines.


South America & The Caribbean

163 million people have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine in South America. Vaccination initiatives are underway in the Caribbean as well, with countries like St. Kitts and Nevis having a 41% vaccination rate. Many Caribbean islands are lagging, some with less than a 5% vaccination rate.


Australia & New Zealand

Combined, both countries have vaccinated almost 8 million people. This is from a cumulative population of approximately 30 million. Again we see where vaccination rollout is quite slow. Reports suggest that these two countries are among many that suffered setbacks at the start of their vaccination process. Currently, they are administering the Pfizer BioNTech and the Oxford Astrazeneca vaccines.


From these numbers, it is evident that there are challenges in the vaccination process. These issues include distribution disparities, financial setbacks, reluctant citizens, confusion in the rollout process, and shortage of vaccines. The countries of lower socioeconomic status are reported to have difficulties in affording the number of vaccines needed. While the higher-income countries can afford vaccines, they face other issues like reluctance. Additionally, the possible side effects reported by initial users cause concern. As such, it has led to the pause of vaccination in many countries, eventually causing a slower vaccination rate.


Notwithstanding, there has been a global reduction in COVID-19 cases due to vaccination; however, the variant strains of the virus are proving to be a challenge. There is so much happening across the globe concerning COVID-19 vaccination. This bit of information is only the basics, and we hope to explore more with you.



 Africa: COVID-19 vaccination rate by country 2021 | Statista. (2021). Statista; Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1221298/covid-19-vaccination-rate-in-african-countries/

‌Buchholz, K. (2021, June 23). Infographic: The COVID-19 Vaccination Race in Asia. Statista Infographics; Statista. https://www.statista.com/chart/24463/vaccination-race-asia-coronavirus/

‌CDC. (2021, May 27). Different COVID-19 Vaccines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations - Statistics and Research. (2014). Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations?country=OWID_WRL

‌Safe COVID-19 vaccines for Europeans. (2021). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/live-work-travel-eu/coronavirus-response/safe-covid-19-vaccines-europeans_en

‌White House Says The U.S. Will Narrowly Miss Its Vaccination Goal. (2021, June 22). NPR.org. https://www.npr.org/2021/06/22/1009061023/white-house-says-the-u-s-will-narrowly-miss-its-vaccination-goal


‌By Kyrios Soter Scientific

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